Individual Golden Retriever breed characteristics are transmitted through genes which are located within chromosomes.
During conception, the reproductive germ cells of the sire and the dam unite, replicating the parents in type (when both the sire and dam are of known, purebred ancestry and of the same breed).
Each contributes 39 chromosomes to every puppy conceived to make up the 78 chromosomes contained in all reproductive cells.
The result is that each puppy born in a litter receives half its chromosomes from the dam and the other half from the sire.
Genes are contained within the 78 chromosomes (39 pairs) found in each Golden Retriever. Individual characteristic traits are contained within the genes.
These traits include the sex, size and shape, eye color, tailset, coat quality and color of each puppy. Included, also, are the essential character or personality traits of each individual.
The predisposition toward certain forms of behaviors are found genetically within Golden Retrievers.
They can exhibit a variety of behaviors, such as guarding, herding, scent-hunting, sight-hinting, retrieving and pulling, as clarified examples.
Not all genes are created "equal." Some genes are recessive while others are dominant.
Complex factors determine whether either the dominant or recessive genes of any breeding are beneficial or detrimental to the desired combined result sought in the offspring (puppies).
Many researchers spend their lives studying the effects of genetics, the hereditary factors involved when offspring of parents are created.
The genetic history of a puppy is not strictly found in the immediate ancestry of sire and dam. It is also based on earlier antecedents such as the grandparents, great grandparents and even earlier generations.
Thus personal knowledge of the individual Golden Retrievers making up a pedigree is critically important when considering a breeding, and that is why the help of a successfully experienced breeder within a given bloodline and breed is so invaluable.
Unless you have already obtained a background in the study of genetics in general, it may take you as a breeder years of practical hands-on experience to successfully determine which breedings will be best and why.
The study of genetics, the successful breeding of Golden Retrievers and optimizing puppies are not suggested for an impatient individual who desires success yesterday without having acquired a sound basis of knowledge in the breed and individual Golden Retrievers' backgrounds.
For more information on Golden Retrievers, check out Edie Mackenzie's - -
Article written by: